In the literature, conversion factors on different sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks can be found, but no study exists on trona. In this study, laboratory UCS and field PL tests were carried out on trona and interbeds of volcano-sedimentary rocks. Based on these tests, PL to UCS conversion factors of trona and interbeds are proposed.

UCS can be found using the size correlation graph (Figure 1) to obtain the index-to-UCS conversion factors. For example, a conversion factor of 23 is found if using the common NX (54 mm) core size.--25 III 1 II I I I I I in thisrange is notrecommended 20 Bmch and Frankh. D'Andreaet al. 1965 ~C = K{* o 15 + 1 1 1 I II I 1 1 I 1 I I 1 I I 20 30 ...

The relationship between the point load strength index (PLI), Is(50), and the uniaxial compressive strength, UCS, is expressed by a conversion factor, K. This parameter, ...

Square foot. Definition: A square foot (symbol: sq ft) is a unit of area used in the imperial and US customary systems (UCS). It is defined as the area of a square with one-foot sides. One square foot equals 144 square inches. History/origin: The origin of the square foot can be seen in the term itself. It is a measurement derived from the area of a square with a side length measured …

The UCS to I S50 linear conversion factor for the trona and interbeds is 14.24 and 25.96, respectively. • Multiple trial and error iterations were completed until reproducing the test behavior of UCS and point load tests. • Average PFC parallel bond contact model micro properties for the trona and interbeds were determined. •

σ UCS = P max / A 0 The modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) E which represents the ratio between axial stress and axial strain can be derived via several methods. Usually, it is calculated at stress-strain level of about 50% of the maximum load. E = Δ σ / Δε a (At 50% of maximum load)

The UCS–BPI conversion factor for this correlation is 5.1. In this study, the relation between UCS and BPI was investigated for pyroclastic rocks. Twenty-eight different samples of pyroclastic rocks were collected from the Cappadocia Region of Turkey. The UCS and BPI tests were carried out on the oven-dried samples in the laboratory.

In cases where the direct determination of the UCS may be impossible for anisotropic and weak rocks, indirect tests, point load (PL), Schmidt rebound number and sound velocity, are often employed to predict the UCS. ... has discussed the reasons of differences in formerly suggested prediction equations and proposed a PL-to-UCS conversion factor ...

Where, F is a size correction factor which is calculated as: After each corrected PL strength index is calculated, the two highest and two lowest values are excluded (given that 10 or more tests have been conducted on the tested material) and the average I S50 is derived. Estimation of Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) based on I S50

relationship between UCS and the point load strength could be expressed as: UCS = (K) Is50 = 24 Is50 (2) Where K is the "conversion factor." Subsequent studies found that K=24 was not as universal as had been hoped, and that instead there appeared to be a broad range of conversion factors. Table 1 summarizes published results obtained for ...

The Is 50 value is known to correlate well with UCS Various studies have come out with correlation between UCS and Is 50 It is found that the index-to-strength conversion factors are rock dependent This study presents the correlation between UCS and Is 50 of granite rock samples originating from a site located at Seremban, Negeri Sembilan...

The strength conversion factor (k) is the ratio between the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the point load index (PLI). It has been used to estimate the UCS from the PLI since the 1960s.

In order to estimate uniaxial compressive strength, index-to-strength conversion factors are used. These factors have been proposed by various researchers and are dependent upon rock type. This study involved the extensive load frame and point load testing of coal measure rocks in six states. More than 10,000 individual test results, from 908 ...

Aydan demonstrated that the conversion factor for the UCS-NPI relation ranges between 0.06 and 0.7, and most of data points were clustered around the empirical function with a coefficient of 0.2. He stated that the conversion factor for the UCS-NPI relation should be evaluated for each rock group separately, in order to improve the correlations.

The strength conversion factor (k) is the ratio between the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the point load index (PLI). It has been used to estimate the UCS from the PLI since the 1960s. Many researchers have investigated the relationship between UCS and PLI for various rock types of different geological origins, such as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

The point load strength index (Is) was evaluated from Eqs. (6-7) and correlated to UCS by a coefficient factor (Eq. (8)). Rusnak and Mark (1999) had proposed 21.9 as conversion factor for typical...

The strength conversion factor ( k) is the ratio between the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the point load index (PLI). It has been used to estimate the UCS from the PLI since the 1960s.

For this purpose, PL tests were performed at the field and UCS tests were performed in the laboratory and regression analyses were carried out by using the results of these tests to determine conversion factors for the aforementioned rocks. The test results were analyzed using the method of least square linear regression.

The index-to strength conversion factor (κ) relating UCS to I s50 depends on the compressive to tensile strength ratio, the Poisson's ratio, the length and the diameter of the rock specimen. Their theoretical prediction for κ (=14.9) is reasonably close to the experimental observation ( κ =12.5) for Hong Kong rocks.

The point load (PL) test is generally used for estimation of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks because of its economic advantages and simplicity in testing. If the PL index of a specimen is known, the UCS can be estimated using conversion factors. Several conversion factors have been proposed by various researchers and they are dependent upon the rock type. In …

To obtain the unconfined compressive strength from PLT a conversion factor is commonly used. Generally in Ohio, competent rocks (sandstones and limestones) use a conversion factor of 24 and incompetent rocks (shales and claystones) use a conversion factor of 12 (UCS = conversion factor * Is).

However, this conversion factor may only adequately predict the UCS of hard rocks. For soft rock, the conversion factor could be much less than 24. Forster [27] found that the conversion factor for sandstone falls in the range between 7.4 and 17.6. More recently, Bowden et al. [28] found that the conversion factor for chalk is from 5 to 24.

Based on this study we have selected a conversion factor of 21 for use with rock in West ia. When lower UCS results are obtained, they should be so noted on the lab sheets and in the calculations. When lower values are used, engineering judgement is needed to ensure the UCS is appropriate for the type of rock tested.

They concluded that a conversion factor of 21–24 should be used for harder rocks and 14–16 for softer rocks. Wood and Shaw (2012) investigated the relation between the UCS and I s for weak Cretaceous sandstone with a UCS lower than 40 MPa.

The Conversion Factor (CF) is the number of dollars assigned to an RVU. It is calculated by use of a complex formula ( Fig 1) that takes into account the overall state of the economy of the United States, the number of Medicare beneficiaries, the amount of money spent in prior years, and changes in the regulations governing covered services.

The Unconfined Compression Test is a laboratory test used to derive the Unconfirmed Compressive Strength (UCS) of a rock specimen. Unconfirmed Compressive Strength (UCS) stands for the maximum axial compressive stress that a specimen can bear under zero confining stress. Due to the fact that stress is applied along the longitudinal axis, the ...

The Unconfined Compression Test is a laboratory test used to derive the Unconfirmed Compressive Strength (UCS) of a rock specimen. Unconfirmed Compressive Strength (UCS) stands for the maximum axial compressive …

UCS is most commonly correlated with the cheaper and more accessible Point Load Index (PLI) measurement. ... In the literature, conversion factors vary …

The UCS of the rock samples can be reasonably estimated by multiplying the PLI value by a conversion factor that can range from as low as 8 to as high as 35 (Brown, 1981). Research from Appalachian Shale (West ia) by Vallejo et al. (1993) has indicated a conversion factor of 12 to estimate UCS.

A very detailed study was carried out on a wide range of rock types and a linear relation (Eq. 7) between UCS and BPI with a conversion factor is 5.1 was suggested in 2001 (Sulukcu and Ulusay 2001).However, the …

A conversion factor equal to 5.7 was established between UCS and BPI c. This value is higher than the advised conversion factor of 5.1. Nevertheless, the 5.1 conversion factor is proposed for general practice, and is not exclusively advised for igneous and metamorphic rocks.

relationship between UCS and the point load strength could be expressed as: UCS = (K) Is50 = 24 Is50 (2) Where K is the "conversion factor." Subsequent studies found that K=24 was not as universal as had been hoped, and that instead there appeared to be a broad range of conversion factors. Table 1 summarizes published results obtained for ...

A conversion factor is the ratio of the molecular weight of a base to the molecular weight of the corresponding salt, as expressed by the following equation: Conversion factor = Molecular weight of base divided by Molecular weight of salt. Therefore, use the following equations when: Converting From Salt to Base: Quantity of salt * conversion ...